Brazil is one of the countries that spends the most on the public service wage bill, but there is a big disparity between the wages paid to employees of different powers and spheres of government.
In the comparison between the Powers, for example, the average salary in the Judiciary (12.12,000 R $) exceeds three times what is paid by the Executive (4.03,000 R $).
Among the various federal levels, those in federal positions (R $ 10.23,000) receive more than three times the average salary of a municipal civil servant (R $ 3,000).
The data comes from the Atlas of the Brazilian State, published by the Institute of Applied Economic Research (Ipea) on the basis of the annual report of the Ministry of Economy on Social Information (Rais), of 2019. L The survey, coordinated by researchers Erivelton Guedes and Felix Lopez, only considers active civil servants, who in 2020 totaled around 10.9 million jobs in the country – of which 58.3% were employed at the municipal level. Occupants of outsourced positions, in addition to trainees and apprentices, were excluded.
“Although there are three distinct federative levels and three independent powers in republican Brazil, the resulting differences are often removed and dealt with generically or the federal level, taken as national, is seen as a typical unit of the public sector. of the country ”, explain the authors of the Atlas. “The result is a skewed – at best partial – understanding of the trends and patterns observed in the public sector, with negative implications for decisions that should improve the capacity of the Brazilian state to act.
Consult the salary averages by power, level of the federation and state below:
The conclusion is in line with the discussions held around the Constitutional Amendment Proposal (PEC) 32/2020, which deals with administrative reform. One of the aspects that unites both opponents and supporters of the PEC is the criticism of the exclusion of certain categories of civil servants from the reform. In addition to the military, the text does not cover members of the Powers, such as parliamentarians, magistrates, prosecutors and lawyers – precisely those with the highest salaries, according to the IPEA study.
Approved by the Constitution and Justice Commission (CCJ) of the Chamber of Deputies, the proposal is considered by the government’s economic team as necessary to lighten the weight of the public sector wage bill. A survey by the National Treasury Secretariat based on information from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) shows that, among 74 countries, Brazil has the ninth largest expenditure for civil servants. According to data, in 2019, the Brazilian state paid civil servants the equivalent of 12.9% of its GDP – well ahead of advanced economies such as the United States (8.7%) and Japan (5, 2%).
“One of the realities is the difference in wages between public and private, which, in excess, can generate distortions,” explains economist Vilma da Conceição Pinto, a research fellow at the Brazilian Institute of Economics of the Getúlio Foundation. Vargas (Ibre / FGV).
According to data from the Brazilian State Atlas of IPEA, a World Bank report points out that this difference does not apply to most civil servants in the country. According to the document, a Brazilian civil servant receives, on average, 19% more than workers in the private sector with a similar function and training – this difference which the entity calls the “wage premium”. But while the indicator reaches 96% at the federal level and 36% at the state level, there is no pay bonus for municipal officials.
Check below the number of civil servants by power, level of the federation and state:
On this subject, the Minister of the Economy, Paulo Guedes, criticizes the salaries of civil servants on several occasions, but without taking into account the salary inequalities within the public sector.
Last year he was even ordered, at first instance, to pay R $ 50,000 in moral damages to the Union of Federal Police Officers of Bahia after comparing officials to parasites. Although he apologized for the statement, during a public hearing on administrative reform in May, Guedes returned to attack, in general, the salaries of Brazilian civil servants.
“See how servers work in advanced democracies. See in Norway, Sweden, it [o servidor] take the metro, sometimes by bike. He doesn’t have 20 cars, plus 50 employees, 30 advisers, it’s not like that. It is still very modest. The speech sparked an opposition revolt. “Officials in Brazil sometimes don’t have money for a bus ticket,” said Maria do Rosário (PT-RS).
During the vote on the admissibility of the PEC at the CCJ, MEP Alex Manente (Cidadania-SP), who spoke in favor of approving the proposal, was one of those who spoke of the inequality salaries of civil servants. “Another fundamental problem that we have to solve is the fact that a few people earn a lot, and a lot of people earn a little. We have to face those who earn more, ”he said.
“We must insert, in the special commission, and it will be the battle of Citizenship, magistrates, diplomats and even parliamentarians to be part of the administrative reform to reach those who earn more, who end up contributing the most to this cost which society can no longer afford to pay.
Deputy Governor Caroline de Toni (PSL-SC) also defends the idea. “Not to say that we want only low civil servants to pay for this, I made an amendment to be able to include the high level of the civil service: members of the deputy, the judiciary, parliamentarians, ministers of state , all also high level. I made this amendment and here is the invitation to all parliamentarians who also want to fight against privileges to sign my amendment, ”he declared during the session.
An amendment to this effect has already been presented to the special committee. More than 230 deputies signed the proposal to include judges and prosecutors in the reform, well above the minimum necessary (171 signatures). But for it to thrive, it must be accepted by the rapporteur – who is in favor of inclusion – and then approved.
The explanation of the Ministry of Economy for excluding categories from the reform is that the Executive could not define specific rules for the Legislative and the Judicial, as this would undermine the autonomy between powers. The Association of Brazilian Magistrates (AMB) has already spoken out against amendments to the PEC that include judges and judges, which the entity believes would be unconstitutional.
An IPEA projection indicates that the reduction in costs for public funds could reach 816 billion reais in ten years, if the members of the Powers were included in the administrative reform.
While the reform is under discussion, an order from the Ministry of the Economy has allowed retired military personnel and retired civil servants who continue to hold certain positions to receive both salaries and pensions, even if they do. they exceed the ceiling of 39,200 reais. Among the beneficiaries of the measure are President Jair Bolsonaro and Vice-President Hamilton Mourão.